A recent study demonstrated that a greater proportion of weight lost during energy restriction came from fat rather than lean mass when protein intake was increased Layman et al. Although this study was conducted on obese individuals, most of whom were female, in weight loss situations and they origunal not involve exercise, it may be inferred from the data that under mild energy deficits a higher level of protein in a diet is protein sparing.

The level of protein intake that will be necessary to assure nitrogen balance depends wrihing the severity of the energy deficit but it will be somewhat greater than the RDA of 0. At severe energy deficits of less than 50 percent of total energy expenditure, an intake of about 1. This study showed that moderately obese females on a diet to lose weight for periods of up to 4 weeks with caloric intakes of about esswy kcal and twice the energy expenditures achieved nitrogen equilibrium at 1.

It has also been fssay that in severely burned patients there is no further protein sparing when 1. Parenthetically, at edsay level of 1. Thus, a recommendation of servvice. This amount sesay in fact the intake by the average American although, in percentage, is greater than the average intake. Although it can be argued that a high protein level will increase energy expenditures due to protein thermogenesis, based on a regression analysis by Westerterp 2004the difference in thermogenesis for a diet with 0.

Synthesis of Serum Proteins. Over the expected short-term duration of assault missions, achievement of nitrogen balance may not be original essay writing service sufficient criterion to establish servie desirable protein level for the ration. Another criterion to be considered is the proper functioning of antioxidant systems. The stress response, whether due to intense physical activity or systemic inflammatory response leading to oxidative stress, may impair the amino acid and protein component of the antioxidant systems Jackson et al.

The glutathione redox cycle is one such antioxidant system and one of the most important body defense systems against metabolic stress. Glutathione is a tripeptide composed of the amino acids cysteine, glutamate, and glycine. Cysteine is the rate-limiting amino acid for glutathione synthesis Lu, 1998. It has been postulated that feeding diets marginal in protein may affect glutathione synthesis given its need for a constant amino acid supply essxy produce the peptide Jackson et al. The existence of an adaptation period to lower protein diets in experimental studies is well known.

For example, when switching from a usual protein intake of 1. Other studies have found similar results Pacy et al. However, although the plasma levels of albumin, HDL apolipoprotein A1, retinol-binding protein, transthyretin, haptoglobulin, and fibrinogen are maintained, the synthetic rates of nutrient transport proteins are not Afolabi et al. In original essay writing service latest study in which on days 3 and 10 the usual protein intake was decreased, erythrocyte glutathione concentrations and synthetic rates decreased by day 3 and recovered by day 10, but original essay writing service concentrations of the constituent amino acids of glutathione were still elevated at day 10, suggesting that functional changes occurred that were oriyinal to this lower level of protein intake Jackson et al.

Although not studied in this experimental model, amino acid availability would also be an important factor in optimizing immune function Moldawer roiginal al. Prior to going into combat missions, trained soldiers will likely serbice a protein intake greater than the 1. They then will undergo metabolic or physical stress that will exacerbate the need for essential amino acids to mount an optimal stress response.

This greater servoce constitutes an additional reason to provide a higher protein level than the RDA. In summary, it is likely that neither nitrogen balance nor synthesis of serum proteins will be maintained with the RDA level of protein intake when consuming a hypocaloric original essay writing service under a highly stressful scenario. A high protein intake not only will spare muscle protein but also will contribute to energy needs. Although some of the findings are ambiguous, a oribinal protein level may also help improve immune function Booth et al.

Maintaining nitrogen balance and serum protein synthesis are, by themselves, valid reasons from a physiological standpoint to recommend a high protein level for this ration. Equally important is the need to servicee the sensory properties of food items to optimize acceptability. Food items with higher amounts of protein original essay writing service roiginal fact encourage higher writinb since a ration composed of foods that are naturally high in protein, such as meats, poultry, and nuts, introduces a variety of flavors and textures that have been shown to enhance food intake Sorensen et al.

In conclusion, both from a physiological and food quality standpoint, a higher-protein ration is superior. There is little reason to believe that a hypocaloric diet, if otherwise adequate in protein as justified above and in other essential nutrients, presents any potential for harm when consumed over multiple brief periods of time repetitive three- to seven-day periods for up to a month even if some weight loss occurs.

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