As Essau Bonaparte acknowledged: an army really does march on its stomach. We suggest that it is very plausible that increased food variety and access to hiatory vegetables and some fruit would have been desired by the soldiers Scenario R-Vand that military planners could have considered this given prior evidence for problems with scurvy in the American Civil War, Crimean War and setvice preceding military situations see Introduction. Nevertheless, it is acknowledged that the more optimised scenarios R-O and R-OV are completely hypothetical given the limitations of nutritional science in 1915.

The scenarios history essay writing service modelled in Microsoft Histort 2010 Excel Solver, Simplex method. Details of the uncertainty analysis are in the Appendix 1. We used the nearest-equivalent modern foods, see Table A2 for further details of these rations. The modern food nearest equivalents we used are detailed in Table A3. In this Scenario we simulated a better attempt by the planners of military rations to approximate the typical NZ diet at the time i. See text and Table 3 for further details on the specific nutrient recommendations. As for Scenario R-O above but with progressively lowering the maximum amount of the highest individual food item by weight until the variety in the original ration increased the number of foods reaching over 50 g per day to up to 10 different foods.

Historical reports of food issues-That the majority of meals on Gallipoli consisted of corned beef bully beefhard witing and tea is especially significant to this study. For example, the first Hlstory Zealand historian of the campaign, Major Fred Waite, noted:Food was always plentiful except just after the Great Blizzard in November when stocks ran very low. As one soldier remarked:We get hustory well fed here, considering, but we do miss the fresh vegetables and fruit. Once or twice we have esaay an egg each, and yesterday actually had a little fresh mutton served out.

One of the greatest difficulties was in bringing up ammunition, water and food. Owing to the annoyance of the flies some sections did not eat anything but a rwiting biscuit during the daytime. To eat biscuit and jam in the daytime a man had to keep moving the hand that held the food. Not only was the clothing inadequate but history essay writing service food and wrjting feeding of the troops was unsatisfactory.

The bulk of the food diet of the New Zealanders at Gallipoli was supplied via the United Kingdom through its Army Service Corps. Generally it was inferior in quality to similar history essay writing service that originated from New Zealand. This was especially true of the New Zealand army biscuit which was white, easy to eat and pleasant tasting. Of note is that the military rations Scenario R-A were far below modern nutritional requirements for vitamin C intake, around a third wriiting the current estimated average servife EAR.

Relative to modern requirements, the military diet was also excessively high in saturated fat 3. If the planners of military rations had made these rations somewhat more like the typical New Zealand diet in terms of modest amounts of vegetables and fruit i. It would hisgory have partly reduced the high intakes of saturated fat and sodium, which is history essay writing service from a health perspective. Nevertheless, it is plausible that military planners could have made moderately more use of a variety of canned and dried foods that were available in History essay writing service Zealand in 1915 and produced in other developed countries.

It is also of interest to demonstrate how far modern knowledge and methods can allow for optimal military rations to serice formulated. Indeed, this ration would have been healthier in all of the dimensions shown in Table 3. Furthermore, this ration would have cost under half writinng cost of the original ration and would be a similar weight. Expanding the variety of this optimised ration to include ten items over 50 g each as per Scenario R-OV would have probably resulted in additional cost compared to Scenario R-O.

But this cost was still estimated to be likely to below that of the original ration i. The results in Table A3 see Appendix 1 indicate that cheese was the likely major contributor to vitamin A intake in the rations. The latter relates to male weight sizes from 56. This compares to the mean enlistment weight history essay writing service a New Zealand soldier of European ethnicity of 160 lbs or 72. Also losses of sodium via sweat during work in hot conditions might have increased sodium requirements - though probably still far below the estimated intake from the military rations as per Scenario R-A.

Also at times of the serice at Gallipoli it was also quite cold and so sodium losses via sweat would sometimes be fairly minimal. Main findings and interpretation-The historical reports indicate the very limited variety of the histpry rations at Gallipoli and include additional factors that may have impacted on food intake e. The nutritional analysis found that the military rations supplied at Gallipoli appeared to be deficient by modern nutritional standards i.

Furthermore, if the planners of military rations had made these rations somewhat more like the typical New Zealand diet in terms of modest amounts of canned vegetables and history essay writing service Scenario R-Vthen this would probably have eliminated four of these deficits i. Other improvements would have been a reduction in the very high intakes of saturated fat and sodium. This higher variety diet Scenario R-V was estimated to only cost an estimated 40 cents per day more albeit using modern pricing, i. The low vitamin C intake identified in this writint including in the uncertainty analysis is entirely compatible with the medical reports of scurvy among the New Wroting soldiers at Gallipoli.

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