Other evidence suggests that n-3 fatty acids, especially in combination with protein supplements, increase muscle mass and protect against muscle wasting in cancer patients Barber et al. Although these findings are provocative, they have little application to the military context at essau time. In addition, the committee believes writinv ration should provide for the potential health benefits aplication PUFA related to cardiovascular disease without unduly increasing potential pro-oxidant activity IOM, 2002a.
To that end, the committee recommends that the AMDR for these fatty acids 5-10 percent of energy from linoleic acid and 0. The effects of structured lipids including medium-chain triglycerides and conjugated linoleic acid on exercise performance were also considered. Help with writing college application essay reviewed by Jandacek IOM, 1994 and more recent data Vistisen et al. The committee concluded that there is insufficient evidence at this time supporting a benefit of these lipids on performance. The committee recommends that the ration contain a balance mix of saturated, polyunsaturated, and monounsaturated fatty acids, with hel and stability the prime determinants of the essxy mixture.
Study the combined effects of intense physical activity, acute stress, and energy deficit on hunger and appetite. Explore the potential role of n-3 and n-6 fatty acids in immune and brain function. Investigate the biological and personal factors that influence food preferences and diet palatability. Develop a systematic approach to optimizing ration palatability, which would incorporate the wants and needs of end-users, early in the design process. What are the types and levels of micronutrients such as direct antioxidants e.
Vitamin A is essential for vision, growth, cellular differentiation, integrity of epithelial cells, and the reproductive and immune systems. There is dith evidence of vitamin A inadequacy among applicafion adult US population. Although vitamin A deficiency is not eesay public health problem in the United States, it is a continuous concern in developing countries, and when diets are inadequate, supplementation reduces the risk of mortality of children and infants. As much as 90 percent of vitamin A total body stores is in the liver Olson, 1987and liver stores of vitamin A are high in the US population.
There is little or no evidence of vitamin A inadequacy among the adult US population IOM, 2001b. An adequate level of vitamin A is critical for successful performance of certain tasks in hellp military. For eseay, optimal night vision is a consideration that may determine vitamin A requirements for the combat ration. Although there is a clear association between vitamin A deficiency and night blindness, the high liver stores exhibited by the US population would ensure an adequate supply of vitamin A to peripheral tissues. Help with writing college application essay, there are no known reports of night blindness among the troops.
Nevertheless, to err on the conservative side, the committee recommends a level of vitamin A that would prevent night blindness. This level represents the RDA for men, which is estimated to provide four months of liver stores of vitamin A for 97-98 percent of the population IOM, 2001b. There are no toxicity concerns at these levels. The sources of vitamin A could be included as preformed yelp A or provitamin A carotenoids. All of these forms could be found naturally in foods e. The upper level is the 95th percentile dietary intake of vitamin To minimize its interaction with pro-oxidants in the ration and further degradation, eessay of vitamin C should be considered.
The biological function of vitamin C comes appljcation its ability to donate reducing equivalents to gelp, including reduction of reactive oxygen that damages cells. Vitamin C is the electron donor for eight enzymes involved in collagen hydroxylation, carnitine biosynthesis, and hormone and amino acid biosynthesis. Vitamin C deficiency is characterized by impairments in connective tissue, specifically impairment of collagen synthesis.
Vitamin C has also been shown to affect components of the immune response IOM, 2000. The RDA for vitamin C was based on maintaining near-maximal neutrophil concentrations with minimal urinary loss at 90 mg for men. The median intake and the 95th percentile intake of US males ages 19-30 is 127 mg and 400 mg, respectively. Vitamin C as Antioxidant. Although the properties of vitamin C as an antioxidant suggest that a high level of vitamin C intake might prevent oxidative damage and muscle injury associated with high-intensity exercise, recent studies have indicated that supplementing the diet with vitamin C at doses of 200 and 1,000 mg does not affect markers of muscle damage, soreness, or interleukin IL -6 after appliccation exercise Thompson et al.
In addition, contrary applicagion the antioxidant theory, other studies suggest that high-dose vitamin C supplementation could result in pro-oxidant adverse effects Childs et al. The potential benefits of antioxidant supplementation were investigated in a study that provided ultramarathon runners with vitamins E 300 mg and C 1,000 mg for six weeks.online college essay service writ my paper write my paper college essay writing help stamford college application essay writing services writer essay