The results in Table A3 see Appendix 1 indicate that cheese was the likely major contributor to vitamin A intake in the rations. The latter relates to male weight sizes from 56. This compares to the mean enlistment weight of a New Zealand soldier of European ethnicity of 160 lbs or 72. Also losses of sodium via sweat during work in hot conditions might have increased sodium requirements - though probably still far below the estimated intake from the military rations as per Scenario R-A.

Also at times of the year at Gallipoli it was also quite cold and so sodium losses via sweat would sometimes be fairly minimal. Main findings and interpretation-The historical reports indicate the very limited variety of the military rations at Gallipoli and include additional factors that may have impacted on food intake e. The nutritional analysis found that the military rations supplied at Gallipoli appeared to be deficient by modern nutritional standards mee.

Furthermore, if the planners of military rations had made these rations somewhat more like the typical New Zealand diet ms terms of modest amounts of help me do my essay vegetables and fruit Scenario R-Vthen this would probably have eliminated four of these deficits i. Other improvements would have been a reduction in the very high intakes of saturated fat and sodium. This higher variety diet Scenario R-V was estimated to only cost an estimated 40 cents per day more albeit using modern pricing, i.

The low vitamin C intake identified in this analysis including in the uncertainty analysis is entirely compatible with the medical reports of scurvy among the New Zealand soldiers at Gallipoli. Intake would have been hrlp by reduced food intake from illness widespread dysentery in these troops and md with food supply delivery mg frontline troops see above. But our results are also possibly overestimates as the above reasons given for vitamin C intake around food supply and dysentery would also apply to lowering vitamin A intake and absorption. Hence this deficiency hellp plausibly have increased injury risk if soldiers were more likely to be stumbling around at night i.

Other nutritional morbidity could have arisen from the high sodium in the military rations Table 3. This would have exacerbated thirst that occurred when frontline troops were short of water which was a common situation sssay Gallipoli. The hardness of the biscuits was also considered a problem and was reportedly the main reason for visits to army dentists. But such problems would not be relevant at times when dysentery and typhoid were prevalent. Furthermore, the overall low variety and palatability of the food may have adversely impacted on military morale and mental health.

But this analysis does demonstrate the very large advances in modern knowledge combined with mathematical techniques and computerisation. That is only six foods Scenario R-O would be help me do my essay to provide optimal nutrition and at under half the cost of the actual military ration in 1915. Study limitations-As detailed above for vitamins A and C, our heop of nutrient intake are probably overestimates for a range of reasons.

But added to this is that the modern nutrient data of foods may not be fully comparable with the 1915 equivalents. For example, the modern food for which we used nutrient data for, may be more mf dense eszay to more efficient industrial scale harvesting help me do my essay food processing. Modern canned food may have lower sodium levels and may reflect more modern preferences e. Yet there have been many changes in agricultural and industrial techniques involved in food processing dl may have influenced relative prices.

We also do not consider how much a slightly heavier daily food ration in some scenarios might have impacted on transport costs by ship or from the beach depots at Gallipoli to the front lines. The uncertainty analysis also highlighted m in the nutrient concentrations depending on the food composition database used e. The wider problem of poor planning-The poor planning around low quality military food rations with lack of variety no canned vegetables or fruit and dominance of salty corned beef and limited water supplies could have been avoided if planners tried harder to better replicate the standard New Zealand diet at the time.

Furthermore, if military ,e and military medical mmy had appreciated the lessons from military history e. It is possible that such risks were known by some, but that it was anticipated that the Gallipoli campaign would be short-lived and easily won. Certainly not one of the allied planners anticipated what followed. Instead of swift victory:There ensued stalemate and trench mt perhaps md more ghastly than the Western Front, in which the stench of corpses rotting in the blazing sun of May, June and July blended in with the perfume of wild thyme, and the very narrowness of the front and rear areas added a dreadful claustrophobia.

For the British Expeditionary Force as a whole, the quality and amount of food dssay improved considerably. Corned beef bully beefalbeit varying in quality, was abundant. It is a bit monotonous.

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