The earliest surviving example of ribbed vaulting can be found in Durham Cathedral built from 1093-1133 AD in Durham, England. Hence there is virtually no basis or credible evidence for Paul Vallely's claim that Europeans "copied" the structural elements of Muslim castles. Similarly, anyone who claims that Henry V's castle architect was a Muslim needs to provide evidence for it, especially the name of the architect and the castles he designed.

With all these facts considered, we think it's safe to assume that architectural development in Europe and the rest of the non-Islamic world would and indeed did move along fine without the so-called 'Muslim genius'. More than a thousand years before al-Zahrawi, the Greek and Roman physicians in the Classical World had access to a variety of surgical instruments.

This is known through several ancient texts which give brief descriptions and also from a 1887 find in the ruins of Pompeii. A house that belonged to a Greek surgeon in 79 AD was identified by its large stores of surgical equipment numbering over a essay writing help online. These medical instruments, which are now on display in museums around the world, were all available to the ancient Greek physician Hippocrates 460-370 BC who lived more than a thousand years before Islam, and many of them in a similar form are still being used today.

These instruments include a variety of scalpels, hooks, uvula-crushing forceps, bone drills, bone forceps, catheters and bladder sounds, vaginal speculum, and even a portable medicine chest to carry them in. As for the circulation of the blood, it may have been described by Muslim medic Ibn Nafis 300 years before William Harvey, but the Chinese Book of Medicine describes this 1,600 years before Ibn Nafis.

This is not so. Cataract surgery has been performed for many centuries. The earliest reference to cataract surgery was written by the Hindu surgeon Susruta in manuscripts dating from the 5th century BC. In Rome, archaeologists found surgical instruments used to treat cataract dating back to the 1st and 2nd century AD. Hollow needles were used to break up the cataract and remove it with suction.

Greek physician, pharmacologist, and botanist Pedanius Dioscorides 40-90 AD in his work Materia Medica one of the most influential herbal books in history referred to the taking of an alcoholic extract before an operation. This would suggest that it was typical for the surgeons of ancient Rome to decrease pain of an operation by giving their patients sedative drugs. Caliph Abu Bakr died early that year and Umar ibn al-Khattab took over. China is also often claimed as the birthplace of the windmill.

The belief that it was invented in China more than 2,000 years ago is widespread and may be accurate, but the earliest actual documentation of a Chinese windmill was in 1219 AD by the Chinese statesman Yehlu Chhu-Tshai. Inoculation was widespread at the time, and involved the use of smallpox scabs. The use of the much less dangerous cowpox virus to induce immunity is known not as inoculation, but as vaccination. It was in fact Jenner who first reported the use of cowpox to vaccinate against the much more lethal smallpox, hence he invented vaccination.

And Yes, Jenner and Pasteur were essay writing help online the inventors of inoculation but neither were the Muslims. What Paul seems to be continually doing is referring to essay writing help online that originated from the Eastern hemisphere regardless of whether it was before or after the advent of Islam or not as originating from 'the Muslim world' when even the most unenlightent amongst us will realize that China and India are not a part of this so-called Muslim world. In India, physicians conferred immunity by applying scabs to the scarified skin of the healthy.

The technique of inoculation spread west to Turkey and then Europe. The quill pen was used for the writings of Egyptian kings 4,000 years ago. They most often used a goose feather carved into a sharp tip and dipped into ink of vegetable origin. For example, Samuel Pepys had one in the year 1663. It functioned in such a way that a small pipe above the tip of the feather was filled with ink by means of a small piston.

But a slightly more practically usable pen came to the world in the 19th century. A fountain pen which functioned on the same principle a pen with a piston was created by the inventor Folsch in 1809. Algebra may have been named essay writing help online a book by al-Khwarizmi titled Al-Jabr wa-al-Muqabilah, but the origins of algebra itself can be traced to essay writing help online ancient Babylonians who were able to do calculations in an algorithmic fashion. Paul Vallely begrudgingly admits that the system of numbering in use all round the world is 'probably' Indian in origin, yet the title of the supposed Islamic invention still remains "The system of numbering".

The first known use of numbers dates back to around 30,000 BC, but it is universally accepted that the system of numbering we use today the digits 0 to 9 was invented in India. Likewise, the Arabs themselves commonly refer to them as "Hindu numerals". The concept of negative numbers was recognised between 100-50 Essay writing help online by the Essay writing help online.

Greek and Indian mathematicians studied the theory of rational numbers. The best known of these works is Euclid's Elements, dated 300 BC. Euclid is also often referred to as the "Father of Geometry". The earliest use of irrational numbers is in the Indian Sulba Sutras 800-500 BC. The first results concerning transcendental numbers were made by Johann Heinrich Lambert in 1761.

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