Individuals who have overt signs of deficiency of vitamin E, due to a genetic abnormality in vitamin E transport or to fat malabsorption, develop scaly skin and eventually neurological symptoms. The RDA for vitamin E is set at 15 mg for men 19-50 years of age. This requirement was based on maintaining plasma tocopherol concentration at a level that limited hemolysis in red blood cells due to peroxide exposure to less than 12 percent. According to NHANES III serum data, this amount would ensure that at least 95 percent of the population is protected against vitamin E deficiency.

The UL of vitamin E was established at 1,000 mg based on hemorrhagic effects. Vitamin E as Antioxidant. High levels of physical activity create oxidative damage, and, as with onlinr C, vitamin E requirements might differ for individuals under physical stress. Although dietary vitamin E appears to have a protective role against oxidative stress, the studies conducted until now have notclearly shown a benefit either in reducing muscle injury due to exercise or in improving performance Sacheck and Essay help online free, 2001.

The effect of vitamin E on exercise-induced changes in creatine kinase CKoxidative damage to lipids, and markers for DNA damage is uncertain. The existing data on the effects of vitamin E as an antioxidant and enhancer of performance often come from studies that used pharmacologic doses of the vitamin. An added difficulty essay help online free from appropriately choosing antioxidant indicators of oxidative stress and muscle damage. For example, Cannon et al. Their research comparing young and old subjects Cannon et al.

There are studies that show that supplementation with vitamin C and E together compared to vitamin C or E alone is more effective in protecting from oxidative stress due to regeneration of vitamin E by vitamin For more jelp, the reader is referred to the section on vitamin C above. Vitamin E and Immune Function.

Vitamin E has been investigated as a potentiator of immune function. Studies have also specifically looked at the effect of vitamin E on the incidence of common colds. Another study, however, reported no beneficial effect of supplementing the diet of noninstitutionalized elderly individuals with the same amount Graat esssay al. Unfortunately, most essay help online free have been conducted with the elder population, and data on effects of vitamin E supplementation on the immune system of young adults are scarce.

Therefore, the level recommended is based on the RDA for this age group and dietary intake validated by chemical analysis of duplicate samples. A recent meta-analysis Miller et al. Therefore, rather than using the UL, the committee based the upper limit of the recommendationon chemically measured dietary intakes. For example, in Holland, chemical testing showed that conventional menus contained 20. There are concerns also with the use of aspirin, or other drugs with anticoagulant properties, in combination with vitamin E due to the potential additive, adverse effects on coagulation.

Pnline the potential synergistic effects of a mixture of antioxidants in a randomized esszy on physical performance and immune function. Conduct studies on the effects of vitamin E supplementation on physical performance and immune function using more physiologic levels of the vitamin 15-60 mgrather than pharmacologic levels. Study the use of aspirin by individuals consuming a diet high in vitamin E, since the action of both may affect coagulation.

Vitamin K acts essay help online free a cofactor during the synthesis of blood coagulation enzymes. The median rfee 95th percentile dietary intake for men 19-30 years old are 101. There have been no adverse events reported, so no UL was established IOM, 2001b. Turnover from lipid fraction is rapid and hepatic reserves deplete rapidly if the intake of vitamin K is restricted Usui et al. The committee believes that for the short terms of the combat mission, however, it is not essential to add vitamin K to the ration because it is stored in the liver and is naturally present in foods.

Onlkne addition, vitamin K deficiency is rare. Thiamin is essential in the metabolism of carbohydrate and branched-chain amino acids.

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