Crystal was invented 175 years later, after glassmaker George Ravenscroft added lead oxide to glass, creating lead crystal glass. Most experts believe that the Pazyryk carpet is a late achievement of at least one thousand years of technique evolution and history. Evidence suggests that some forms of rug-weaving were used in Egypt, Mesopotamia, and the Middle East and Asia about 4,000 years ago. Therefore, the carpet is a pre-Islamic invention. What of the West and the flooring being referred to by Paul Vallely.

The Colosseum in Rome which was completed in 80 AD had wooden not earthy flooring. In fact, the typical Roman home as early as the 2nd century BC had mosaic flooring, as found in the "House of the Tragic Poet" in Pompeii, Italy. In 47 BC when the Egyptians banished Queen Cleopatra from Egypt, replacing her with her brother, she had herself delivered to the Roman Emperor Julius Caesar, smuggled inside a rolled up carpet. Their love for carpets was so great that many considered them to be more valuable than money and they even used them to pay their taxes. Modern cheques need paper to be written, so clues to the invention of cheques can be traced following the lead of the invention of paper.

Closely custom essay writing service professays is also the history of money and banking. Paper is thought to have been invented in China 1st century BC. It was kept as a secret for five centuries and went to Japan in AD 610. It was not used only for writing and books The Chinese are also responsible for the invention of printing, possibly between the 4th and 7th century AD. More to the point of cheques, they used it for the first promissory note, the first paper money. The invention was necessitated by the highway men who became so numerous that the merchants were not able to pay their taxes to the state.

The state machinery was vital to the Chinese Empire to survive for so many thousand years. The civil servants brought the idea of notes marked with certain value that can be exchanged to gold at the end of the journey. Thus was developed the first cheques in history. Eratosthenes 275-194 BC in 240 BC measured the circumference of the earth to a figure very close to what we know of at present.

He measured the distance between Alexandria and Aswan by pacers and also measured the curvature of the earth between these two points on the surface of the sphere earth and came to the figure of the circumference of the earth. Eratosthenes' method was later to be employed by Hermannus Contractus 1013-1054 AD a medieval Christian scholar. The Greek philosopher and mathematician Aristarchus 320-230 BC even knew the Earth revolves around the Sun and not the other way around i. The final two parts of his Sanskrit magnum opus the Aryabhatiya, which were named the "Kalakriya" reckoning of time and the "Gola" ballstate that the earth is spherical and that its circumference is 4,967 yojanas, which in modern units is 39,968 km 24,835 miwhich is close to the current equatorial value of 40,075 km 24,901 mi.

The Islamic faith stifles scientific progress and nothing demonstrates this as well as the modern-day belief that the Earth is flat. As recently as 1993 the supreme religious authority of Saudi Arabia Sheik Abdul-Aziz Ibn Baaz declared "The earth is flat. Whoever claims it is round is an atheist deserving of punishment. Were gunpowder in actual military use by the times of the Crusades, the first device to apply it in would have been a cannon, but it was in fact the Chinese who fired the first cannon. Fire arrows were traditional arrows tipped with flammable materials like pitch, bitumen, or resin.

In 994 AD the Chinese city of Tzu T'ung was attacked by an army of 100,000 men. The commander of the defensive forces, named Chang Yung, ordered a response to the attack using artillery fire made up of catapulted stones and fire arrows launched by custom essay writing service professays. In 1045, a Custom essay writing service professays government official named Tseng Kung-Liang wrote a complete account of the Chinese use of gunpowder, including its adaptation to weaponry.

Called "Wu-ching Tsung-yao" Complete Compendium of Military Classics the work detailed the use of ballistic fire arrows not launched by bows, but by charges of gunpowder. While the date of their introduction is uncertain, the fire custom essay writing service professays launched by gunpowder are considered to be the first true rockets. These fire arrows were traditional feathered arrows propelled by ignited gunpowder housed in a tube tied to the arrow. The fire arrows carried flammable materials or sometimes poison-coated heads. In a form more closely resembling modern rockets, the gunpowder tube was lengthened to the tip of the arrow and given a pointed nose, eliminating the need for a traditional arrowhead.

In 1258, the Mongols were reported to have used gunpowder-propelled fire arrows in their effort to capture the Arab city of Baghdad. The Mongols reportedly launched gunpowder propelled fire arrows from ships during their attacks on Japan in 1274 and 1281.

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