The one study in India showed a 6 percent reduction in mortality. I cannot explain that study, but I can explain the Sudan study. The Sudan study showed actually a negative effect, but it is quite puzzling because those investigators also showed that vitamin A supplementation had no impact on vitamin A deficiency.

In other words, in children who had night blindness or xerophthalmia, it did not reduce that at all, which makes me a little cheap essay writing service with payment plans concerned. I am quite puzzled over that. I think if I understand your second question, I don't think anybody has looked at effects of vitamin A supplementation in humans on antigens that are less immunogenic, such as Dresser 1968 did in mice with, I think, bovine serum albumin.

That hasn't been done. It would be very interesting to see. We are doing a study in adults with conjugated pneumococcal vaccine in Baltimore using vitamin A and zinc in a factorial design to see whether that will increase their immune responses. ROBERT NESHEIM: Thank you very much. We appreciate your comments on vitamin A, and I think it has been very helpful to us. Every aspect of immune function and host defense is dependent upon a proper supply and balance of nutrients.

Severe malnutrition can cause significant alteration in immune response, but even subclinical deficits may be associated with an impaired immune response, and an increased risk of infection. Infectious diseases have accounted for more off-duty days during major wars than combat wounds or nonbattle injuries. Combined stressors may reduce the normal ability of soldiers to resist pathogens, increase their susceptibility to biological warfare agents, and reduce the effectiveness of vaccines intended to protect them.

There is also a concern with the inappropriate use of dietary supplements. This book, one of a series, examines the impact of various types of stressors and the role of specific dietary nutrients in maintaining immune function of military personnel in the field. The first part of the book contains the committee's workshop summary and evaluation of ongoing research by Army scientists on immune status in special forces troops, responses to the Army's questions, conclusions, and recommendations.

The rest of the book contains papers contributed by workshop speakers, grouped under such broad topics as an introduction to what is known about immune function, the assessment of immune function, the effect of nutrition, and the relation between the many and varied stresses encountered by military personnel and their effect on health. You're looking at OpenBook, NAP. Based on feedback from you, our users, we've made some improvements that make it easier than ever to read thousands of publications on our website.

Jump up to the previous page or down to the next one. Also, you can type in a page number and press Enter to go directly to that page in the book. Switch between the Original Pages, where you can read the report cheap essay writing service with payment plans it appeared in print, and Text Pages for the web version, where you can highlight and search the text.

To search the entire text of this book, type in your search term here and press Enter. Ready to take your reading offline. Click here to buy this book in print or download it as a free PDF, if available. Do you enjoy reading reports from the Academies online for free. Sign up for email notifications and we'll let you know about new publications in your areas of interest when they're released. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field 1999 Chapter: 12 Vitamin A and Immune Function Get This Book Visit NAP. Military Strategies for Sustainment of Nutrition and Immune Function in the Field.

Washington, DC: The National Academies Press. Semba, The Johns Hopkins University, Department of Ophthalmology, Ocular Immunology Service, Baltimore, MD 21205 Page 280 Share Cite Suggested Citation: "12 Vitamin A and Immune Function. Clinical Manifestations of Vitamin A Deficiency Epidemiology of Vitamin A Deficiency Page 281 Share Cite Suggested Citation: "12 Vitamin A and Immune Function. Vitamin A Deficiency in Adults Page 282 Share Cite Suggested Citation: "12 Vitamin A and Immune Function. Page 283 Share Cite Suggested Citation: "12 Vitamin A and Immune Function.

Considerations for Adult Men and Women Page 285 Share Cite Suggested Citation: "12 Vitamin A and Immune Function.

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